This is the 4th in a series of articles which serializes my family history, which I wrote in November 2017, titled “From Samuel to Cyrus: A fresh look at the History of the Packard Family.” Below is the 2nd chapter of that history titled “Escaping the throes of persecution.” This has been updated to include helpful comments by Dale Cook, most recently on November 4, 2019, to remove the sentence “while Samuel’s appointment as a constable in 1664 and 1674, a licensed innkeeper in in 1671, and among “Bridgewater’s proprietors” in 1682 cannot be proven” along with some other minor changes.
It was June 1638.  Newlyweds Samuel Packard, possibly 25 years old, and his wife Elizabeth, possibly 23 years old, brought their young daughter, Mary, on a ship to a new land. They were among 133 passengers, on the 350-ton ship, the HMS Diligent, mainly from Suffolk County’s Hingham, England (“Old Hingham”), destined for Hingham, Massachusetts (“New Hingham”), with John Martin as the Master and Captain of the ship.  These passengers comprised nineteen families, twelve of whom were from Old Hingham. Reportedly, there were about twenty servants in total, who served a number of the families, including ancestors of Abraham Lincoln, but not the Packards.  On August 10, after making a perilous journey from which a few passengers died and stops in the Carney Islands and Caribbean, before heading north, the Diligent arrived in the eight-year-old city of Boston.  Early American historian Alan Taylor, who notes that about 14,000 Puritans participated in the “Great Migration” from England to New England from approximately 1630 to 1630, describes that the journey across the Atlantic from England was extremely perilous for these new colonists to say the least:
Emigration across the Atlantic in a small and crowded wooden ship was…a daunting prospect. Battling the prevailing Atlantic winds and currents, the slow-moving vessels usually took eight to twelve weeks to cross. Few of the Puritans, who were mostly artisans and farmers [like the Packards], or their wives and children had to travel by ship. On board the standard vessel, about one hundred passengers [in this case 133] shared the cold, damp, and cramped hold with their property…The emigrants consumed barreled water, salt meat, and hard bread, a fare that worsened as the voyage proceeded…Only in relatively calm weather…could the passengers partake of the fresh air and distant views from the deck…Close quarters and proximity to death gave a new intensity to the daily prayers…of the passengers 
When they arrived in the city of Boston, recently established as part of the Massachusetts Bay Colony, an English colony answerable to the British Crown with John Winthrop as the governor. The city had major fishing and whaling industries, gaining great wealth and power in the region. Samuel and Elizabeth were unlike other emigrants from England: they were “skilled and prosperous people” who usually stayed at home rather than going across the Atlantic, which would assist them in the northern hilly land with dense forests, “sharp slopes, stony soils, and a short growing season,” reinforced by their Puritan faith.  This faith, while it didn’t help them become rich like those who emigrated to the Chesapeake Bay region, was the well from which “increasing commercialism of New England” sprung since land was cheap and plentiful but little labor was available, so many farmers had to “rely on their own families or the labor” needed to maintain their “especially demanding farms.”
The Packards, among the hundreds on the ship were not coming to Massachusetts for new opportunities. The passengers, comprised of working-class folks like shoemakers and millers, a number of ministers, and gentry, were mostly Puritans, or more specifically, East Anglians.  Historical context helps gain a better perspective of who these colonists were and why they had traveled the seas. In early modern England, church and state were united, with the law demanding that all support the Church of England, also called the Anglican Church, which was headed by the English monarch since its creation in the 1530s. The monarchy used the church to promote religious and political conformity, creating a hierarchical social order, but there were certain “devout reformers” called Puritans (originally as an epithet) which wanted to change the Anglican Church and larger society, feeling that the Protestant Reformation was incomplete within England. 
Even with this goal, they were divided on the details, with some, called “Separatists” who wanted to withdraw and form their own independent congregations. They did agree on the disdain of medieval Catholicism, seeking to recover the “original, pure, and simple church of Jesus Christ and his apostles,” stripping away church ceremony and formulaic prayers, engaging in moral living, reading the bible, and “devout prayer.” Satirized by Ben Jonson as “Zeal-of-the Land Busy” character, their beliefs appealed to residents in England’s most “commercialized area,” specifically in East Anglia, Sussex, and London, with most belonging to the “middling sort,” those who were small propertyholders such as skilled artisans, shopkeepers, and farmers. The Packards, who were among this mix of people, felt their salvation by working hard in their occupation was proved by God, including “a strict code of personal discipline and morality,” with their rhetoric depicting England as a place which was “awash of thieves, drunks, idlers, prostitutes, and blasphemers.” While this zeal made them unpopular, as most English people “preferred Anglicanism,” it also alarmed English kings who wanted “unquestioning loyalty.” As the latter recognized the “subversive potential” of the insistence of Puritanism on “spiritual equality to all ungodly men,” they tried to accommodate the Puritans until King Charles I who hoped to “reconcile English Catholics” while bishops favoring the British crown dismissed Puritan preachers who “balked at conducting high church liturgy” and prosecuted numerous “Puritan laypeople.”  Any attempt for redress was eliminated when Charles I dissolved Parliament in 1629, ruling arbitrarily for next 11 years.
Since many Puritans refused to conform to the wishes of the King, his loyal Archbishop, and other authorities of the Anglican church, they began to think of journeying across the Atlantic to a new land. While past colonies in the region, specifically one in Maine from 1607-1608, had been a failure, promotional literature by Captain John Smith, of “Jamestown fame” appealed to those Puritans angry with their “Anglican rulers,” especially those who were Separatists.  As the years went by, new colonies expanded from coastal areas into the interior since they could not resist the allure of gaining “larger tracts of land for farming,” with 20,000 inhabitants by 1660. The Puritans believed that “religion and profit jump together,” meaning that they felt, as mainly small property holders, that they would feel the next economic pinch, also burdened by new taxes and increasing crime. As they had to “divest themselves of much of the property they had so painstakingly accumulated” to emigrate, which was painful for them since they “cherished property as their security,” they sought a new land which had no “profitable plantation crop,” and attained a longer-lived, healthier, and more sex-balanced population than other areas. With land grants within towns were granted to those men who banded together, colonists cut clearings in forests, chopped firewood, built barns and houses, constructed mills, and much more by “hand labor” which was demanding. With the raising a “medley of small crops” like beans, potatoes, maize, rye, wheat, and garden plants, the tending of farms was much work, leading to a population of short-lived indentured servants in an economy which had few, if any enslaved laborers, and family units where couples came together after the marriage was approved by the Puritan parents of the spouse and groom.  To finish up this summary of the history, the Puritans unlike their counterparts back in England and in the rest of the English-speaking colonies had more access to preaching, while they also rejected any form of religious liberty.
The Packard family story ties into this history. In 1633, migration from Hingham, England to the future site of “New Hingham” had begun with a group aboard the Elizabeth Bonaventure. Robert Peck, reverend of St. Andrew’s Parish Church, fled with half of his congregation, likely all of the 133 people on the Diligent, embarking from Ipswitch, England.  Most of the passengers, including Samuel and Elizabeth, settled in “New Hingham,” a very wooded, fishery-based, agricultural town, by the water, similar to Plymouth, with the town’s population doubling after their arrival. The town, within the Plymouth Bay Colony, with 10-20 houses, some ships docked, and a few craftsmen as evidenced by a representation by a local artist in a soon-to-be-opened museum at the Hingham Historical Society.
The Packards were not the first, but were part of a considerable wave of new settlers, living in crudely and quickly built houses. “New Hingham,” founded in 1635 by Peter Hobart and a “group of Puritans,” was the removal town of “Old Hingham” “physically, mentally, socially, and spiritually” to New England.  With the town established, Hobart and Reverend Robert Peck became powerful individuals, a significant point since many families in “New Hingham” were part of their Church.  Samuel helped build, reportedly, numerous houses and lodgings across the colony as he fulfilled his vow with Elizabeth. They would grow up in a very traditional society with about 5.5% of the women remaining single throughout their lives, and an established division of tasks along gender lines. 
By the 1640s, as one genealogist, Dale Cook, writes, Samuel and his family were in Hingham, where they stayed from 1638 to 1654.  Others say that Samuel was a proprietor in Hingham (in 1638), that the family eventually moved to Weymouth where he was appointed a selectman, staying there from 1654 to 1664, and eventually moved to Bridgewater. During this time period, of living in Hingham, eight children were reportedly born: Samuel (d. 1697), Israel (d. 1699), Hannah (d. 1727), Deborah (d. 1725), Zaccheus (d. 1723), and Deliverance (d. 1708), while only two children would have been born in Weymouth: John (d. 1741) and Nathaniel (1655-1736).  There were two other children: Thomas and Jaell. As Dale Cook noted below, Jaell was one of their daughters and was a “Biblical name – that of the wife of Heber, a Kenite. Jael fulfilled the prophecy of judge and prophetess Deborah by killing Sisera, leader of the Canaanite army [Judges Chapter 4].” These two individuals were clearly children of Samuel and Elizabeth.
The Packards were part of a society in Hingham but the growing colony in New England. Iron was imported into Hingham while “timber, planke, and mast” was exported into Boston for shipping and “cedar and pine board” was exported to other towns. By the 1640s, most of the “free colonists” in New England were “better fed, clothed, and housed” than their “common contemporaries” back in the “mother country” of England, with certain Puritans feeling that the settling of New England was a waste of time and resources, with effort better spent “at home.”  Residents participated directly in “King Philip’s War” in 1676. The Packards did participate when they were living in Bridgewater, 20-23 miles away. Samuel Packard Jr., Samuel’s son, was a sergeant and John Packard, also his son, was a soldier. The claim that his son, Israel was killed in action is erroneous.  Still, there was clear participation in King Phillip’s War. In one record transcription, it shows Israel Packard agreeing to serve “as a trooper” for the town of Bridgewater in May 1671.  It is also clear that it is clear that Samuel owned the “Nipenicket” farm near Bridgewater.
 Some sources claim that the sailing started from Gravesend on April 28, 1638 (ex: “Genealogical Guide to the Early Soldiers of America,” The Spirit of ’76 , Vol. 6, no. 3, Nov. 1899, p. 86, another genealogical book edited by William Richard Cutter, a book by Samuel Deane and a book by the Colonial Dames of America and the “Gilman Family History”) but these specific sources have not been examined independently at the current time. Sometimes their last name is spelled Packer or Parker, among many other spellings.
 James Savage, A Genealogical Dictionary of the First Settlers of New England Vol. I (Boston: Little Brown &Company, 1860), 489-490; “Genealogical Gleanings in England,” New England Genealogical Register, Vol. L (Bowie, MD: Heritage Books, 1998, reprint), p. 131; Henry F. Waters, Genealogical Gleanings in England Vol. II (Boston: New England Genealogical Society, 1901), 1122; Henry Whittemore, Genealogical Guide to the Early Settlers of America: With a Brief History of those of the First Generation (Baltimore: Clearfield Publishing, 1967), 284, 308, 374, 396, 426; James Savage, A Genealogical Dictionary of the First Settlers of New England Vol. IV (Boston: Little Brown & Company, 1862), 202; Hingham, MA, History of the Town of Hingham, Massachusetts, Vol. III (Hingham, MA: University Press, 1893), 114; Solomon Lincoln, History of the town of Hingham, Plymouth County, Massachusetts (Hingham, MA: Caleb Gill, Jr. and Farmer and Brown, 1827), 46-48; Ezra S. Stearns, History of Ashburnham, Massachusetts, from the Grant of Dorchester Canada to Present Time (Ashburnham, MA, 1887), 841; Meredith Bright Colket and Keith M. Sheldon, Founders of Early American Families: Immigrants from Europe 1607-1657 (Cleveland, OH: General Court of Order of Founders and Patriots of America, ca. 1985), 235; William Richard Cutter, New England Families Genealogical and Memorial (New York: Lewis Historical Publishing Company, 1913), 119, 122; Ted Clarke, Hingham: Four Centuries of History (London: The History Press, 2015), 9-10; Nahum Mitchell, History of the Early Settlement of Bridgewater, in Plymouth County, Massachusetts (Boston: Kidder & Wright, 1840), 253, 366, 329; Samuel G. Drake, Result of Researchers Among the British Archives (Boston: New England Historical and Genealogical Register, 1860), 78-81; Roger Thompson, Mobility and Migration: East Anglican Founders of New England, 1639-1640 (Boston: University of Massachusetts Press, 1994), xi; Charles B. Packard, The Crepe Myrtle (Bloomington, IN: AuthorHouse, 2009), 12; Lee A. Whitters, “A Diligent Effort,” Dartmouth Medicine, Winter 2007; “Historical Timeline,” accessed Aug. 1, 2017.
 Savage, A Genealogical Dictionary Vol. I, 29, 142, 145; Whittemore, 284; Savage, A Genealogical Dictionary Vol. IV, 116, 133, 230, 233, 341; John J. Waters Jr., The Otis Family in Provincial and Revolutionary Massachusetts (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1968), 13; “Genealogical Guide to the Early Soldiers of America,” The Spirit of ’76, Vol. 6, no. 3, Nov. 1899, p. 50; James Elton Bell and Frances Jean Bell, Sir Robert Bell and His Early Virginia Colony Descendants (Tuscon, AZ: Wheatmark, 2008), 44; Mitchell, 115; Drake, 79-81; Nathaniel Bradstreet Shurtleff, John Beal of Hingham, and one line of his descendants (Boston: 1865), 1; “Folsom History,” accessed August 1, 2017.
 Carolyn St. John Elliott Battles and James Bruce Battles, A Puritan Family’s Journey: From Hingham to Hingham and onto Sanbornton, New Hampshire: The Ancestors of Marion Gilmon Elliott (Carolyn St. John Elliott Battles, 2013), 30; Packard, 12; “Daniel Cushing’s Record of Early Settlers,” accessed August 1, 2017.
 Alan Taylor, American Colonies: The Settling of North America (New York: Penguin Books, 2001), 168-169.
 Ibid, 159-160, 168-169.
 Savage, 145, 353; Whittemore, 398; Stearns, 606, 661; Battles and Battles, 29; Waters Jr., 15; Mary Gant Bell, Dixon Family History (Mary Gant Bell, 2007), 309; Ira G. Peck, A Genealogical History of the Descendants of Joseph Peck (Boston: Alfred Mudge & Son, 1868), 14; “Passenger List of the Diligent 1638,” accessed August 1, 2007; Clarke, 11-16, to give a few sources.
 Alan Taylor, American Colonies, 160.
 Ibid, 161-162, 164.
 Ibid, 165.
 Ibid, 166-167, 169-170, 170-174, 179, 181, 185-186. During this process, two sets of parents “negotiated a property settlement to provide the new couple with the land, tools, and livestock to commence a farm or trade.” The region, as Taylor notes in page 176, depended on a “trading system that serviced the wealthier slave-based economy of the West Indies.”
 Battles & Battles, 29-30; Bell & Bell, 6; History of the town of Hingham, Massachusetts, Vol. II, Part 2 (Hingham, MA, 1893), p. 2-3, 36; Peck, 13; Brian E. Aiguier, “The History of the Hingham Police Department,” accessed Aug. 1, 2017.
 Waters Jr., 11-14; Thompson, 23, 108, 141, 200, 206, 221, 261-262; Richard Caldwell, A Tour of Hingham (East Weymouth, MA, 1974), 1, 33, 70, 78; Clarke, 16, 20-24. Those living in “old Hingham” told the British House of Commons that “most of the able Inhabitants have forsaken their dwellings and have gone severall ways for their peace and quiett and the town is now left and like in the misery by reason of the meanness of the [remaining] Inhabitants.”
 Ibid, 17-18; Peck, 25-26; Clarke, 28. The Diary of William Bentley Vol. III Jan. 1803-December 1810 (Salem, MA: The Essex Institute, 1911), 282; Thompson, 189; John Winthrop, Winthrop’s Journal: “History of New England” 1630-1649 (ed. James Kendall Hosmer, New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1908), 229-232, 245, 289, 321, 330; Packard, 12-13. “Hobart’s Diary” is within the Diary of William Bentley, found in 1807, when before it was a record that was within the Hobart family. There is also Hobart’s Journal, but this is a different record.
 Carol F. Karlsen, The Devil in the Shape of a Woman: Witchcraft in Colonial New England (New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 1998), 204-5, 339.
 See “Samuel Packard Family,” Plymouth Colony Pages, Early Bridgewater Families, 2011. As one Packard family member once said, “almost all of the Packards in America descend from Samuel & Elizabeth Packard who came to America in 1638.”
 Some cite different dates, saying that Zaccheus was born in 1643, John in 1655, and Deliverance in 1652. Looking through existing town records of Hingham shows no Packards born in the town. When I said that, I was referring to town records on Family Search, but as Dale Cook noted, “the baptisms of Packard children Hingham are found in the journal of Rev. Peter Hobart, who was Pastor there while Samuel and his family lived in that town,” a journal published in NEHGR (New England Historical and Genealogical Register) in 1967. See my comment below for more. In researching at the Hingham Historical Society in July 2017, no direct links to the Packards could be found, with only tangential links in Vol. II of the History of the Town of Hingham by George Lincoln (p. 195, 398) and a short mention in Vol. I on pages 104 to 105. Nothing else is known currently. See Find A Grave entry for Col. Thomas Packard, Sr. as well.
 James E. McWilliams, Building the Bay Colony: Local Economy and Culture in Early Massachusetts (Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2007), 48, 67, 74; Taylor, American Colonies, x, 168.
 William Hubbard, The History of the Indian Wars in New England (Danbury: Stiles Nichols, 1803), vii, 62-3, 67, 122, 135; Pansy Modesitt Gleason, “Gilman Family History,” Indiana Magazine of History, 1941, Vol. 37, Issue 4, pp. 405-407; Mitchell, 39-41 (from 1897 reprint). During this conflict, five houses in Hingham were apparently burned. Samuel and his sons were reportedly soldiers, part of a company led by Capt. Benjamin Church which captured 17 indigenous people and plundered along the way. On the town’s website, it says that in the town, founded in 1622 as Wessagusset, was boosted by the arrival of 100 settlers from Weymouth, England, in 1635. The town was later incorporated into the Massachusetts Bay colony and becoming a “fishing and agricultural community.” There is an extreme lack of records when it comes to Weymouth. Nothing is available from Family Search’s Family History Library, and records held by the town do not date back to the 17th century. Even the varied genealogy pages for the area, as shown here, here, and here, are lackluster
 Bridgewater, “Town Records 1656-1808 Vol. 1-4,” p. 60. Also see here and here. The verification of these claims is hard because at the time no newspapers of Bridgewater were published or still survive.